Causes of Back Pain

1. Mechanical problems:

  • The most common mechanical cause of low back pain is a condition called intervertebral disc degeneration, which simply means that the discs located between the vertebrae of the spine are breaking down with age. As they deteriorate, they lose their cushioning ability. This problem can lead to pain if the back is stressed like in prolong standing or bending forward or lifting weight.
  • Another cause of low back pain is the wearing down of the facet joints, which are the large joints that connect each vertebrae to another.
  • Other mechanical causes of low back pain include spasms, muscle tension, and ruptured discs, which are also called herniated discs.

2. Injuries:

  • Spine injuries such as sprains and fractures can cause either short-lived or chronic back pain. Sprains are tears in the ligaments that support the spine, and they can occur from twisting or lifting improperly.
  • Fractured vertebrae are often the result of osteoporosis, a condition that causes weak, porous bones. Less commonly, low back pain may be caused by more severe injuries that result from accidents and falls.

3. Acquired conditions and diseases:

  • Many medical problems can cause or contribute to low back pain. They include scoliosis, which causes curvature of the spine and does not usually cause pain until mid-life.
  • Spondylolisthesis due to crack in pars defect causes movement of spine on each other causes low back pain and occasionally leg pain also.
  • various forms of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
  • spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal column that puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.
  • While osteoporosis itself is not painful, it can lead to painful fractures of the vertebrae.
  • Other causes of back pain include pregnancy; kidney stones or infections; endometriosis, which is the buildup of uterine tissue in places outside the uterus; and fibromyalgia, which causes fatigue and widespread muscle pain.

4. Infections and tumors:

  • Although they are not common causes of low back pain, infections can cause pain when they involve the vertebrae, a condition called osteomyelitis, or when they involve the discs that cushion the vertebrae, which is called discitis.
  • Tumors, too, are relatively rare causes of back pain. Occasionally, tumors begin in the back, but more often they appear in the back as a metastasis of cancer that has spread from elsewhere in the body.

5. Psychological cause:

  • Untreated depression and anxiety can make back pain feel much worse. Likewise, insomnia, or the lack of sleep, can also contribute to back pain.
Symptoms of Back Pain
  • Persistent pain or stiffness anywhere along your spine
  • Sharp, localized pain in the upper back or lower back — especially after lifting heavy objects or engaging in other strenuous activity
  • Chronic pain in the middle or lower back, especially after sitting or standing for extended periods
  • Back pain that radiates from the low back to the buttock, down the back of the thigh, and into the calf and toes
Treatment of back pain

Epidural Procedures:
This all types of procedures done in operation theater set up under fluoroscopic ( continuous x-ray ) guidance and contrast study with maintaining all aseptic and antiseptic precautions.

DISC FX PROCEDURES:
DISC FX is internationally accepted procedures for patient suffering from disc degeneration. It is intervention procedures in which degenerated disc with toxic material is to be removed under local anesthesia with minimal damage of surrounding spinal cord and nerve root.  This procedure done in operation theater set up under fluoroscopic guidance and contrast study. After this procedures chances of recurrence of pain are very less.

Ozone Discectomy (Ozonucleolysis):
Injection of Ozone-Oxygen mixture into the disc is a new alternative method of treating patients suffering from back and leg pain (sciatica) caused by disc prolapse. Large number of international studies confirms the efficacy of this treatment and superiority of this treatment over conventional disc surgery.

High Intensity LASER:
High intensity laser therapy can be given for trigger point pain, muscular spasms and myo-fascial pain . High intensity laser is very powerful machine for treating the musculo-tendinious pain in body. It has high tissue penetration power. It is basically a ” Regenerative Therapy ” which produce the new cell in tissue by stimulating the mitochondria of the cell by laser light. After high intensity laser therapy patient will get long term pain relief. We have 12 W power machine which is 50 times more powerful then ordinary laser machine ( 0.1 to 0.3 ml watt ).

Radiofrequency Ablation:
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure used to reduce pain. An electrical current produced by a radio wave is used to heat up a small area of nerve tissue, thereby decreasing pain signals from that specific area. RFA can be used to help patients with chronic (long-lasting) low-back pain. RFA has proven to be a safe and effective way to treat some forms of pain. It also is generally well-tolerated, with very few associated complications.

Spinal cord stimulation:
Spinal cord stimulation is a procedure that delivers low-level electrical signals to the spinal cord or to specific nerves to block pain signals from reaching the brain. Spinal cord stimulation is recommended when other treatments have not been successful, when surgery is not likely to help, or when surgery has failed.